Sir, European leaders and cultural elites are still haunted by Yugoslavia and the role they played in its destruction, as evidenced by the rising level of comparisons between the collapse of Yugoslavia and what is happening in Spain today with Catalonia’s declaration of independence. Among EU leaders and the commentators in the quality press, the tilt is distinctly in the direction of arguing why Spain is not Yugoslavia. Sure, Yugoslavia was authoritarian (illegitimate) and Spain is a democracy (legitimate). Interestingly, though, Spain’s leadership in Madrid, from left and right, has long recognised that Spain is indeed a great deal like Yugoslavia: asymmetric federalism, sharp regional disparities in wealth, historical legacy of fascist mass violence and repression, unresolved consequences of a bloody civil war in the early 20th century, fiercely competing subnational identities with a long history of competition.

The political sociologist Charles Tilly once compared the democratic development of the Netherlands and Spain between 1650 and 1850 and concluded that while contention can help democratic development, too much violent contention has long-term negative consequences. While the Netherlands had 22 years of violent upheaval during this time, Spain had 82 years of revolutionary situations, often including the regions of Portugal and Catalonia. We know what eventually happened with Portugal.

If Spain is nothing like Yugoslavia, why is Spain one of the few western democracies that has yet to recognise Kosovo’s declaration of independence from Serbia? Maybe the Spanish leadership in Madrid has long known something about their country, which makes outsiders uncomfortable. The European project was founded on trying to overcome the violent competition among its various national communities. European elites always blamed the Yugoslav crisis on the lack of democracy, but Spain demonstrates again that even a reasonably functioning democracy is no protection against secessionist passions.

Dr Mark A Wolfgram
Ottawa, ON, Canada



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BitConnect Investment Opportunity

BitConnect Investment Opportunity

Investing in BitConnect Coin and Staking

bitconnect stakingThe moment you acquire BitConnect Coin it becomes an interest bearing asset with Up to 120% return per year through PoS minting. All you have to do to earn with this method is to hold coins in your Bitconnect-QT wallet. This means anyone holding BitConnect Coin in their wallet will receive interest on their balance in return for helping maintain security of the network.Learn more. This investment option involves profiting from the rise in price over your investment time period.

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Earn from BitConnect Coin trading

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